Aerobic exercise – a type of exercise that strengthens your heart and lungs by making them work harder. Some examples include brisk walking, jogging, dancing, or sports such as tennis or basketball.
Carbohydrate – the main source of energy for the body found in foods. There are three main types: starches, sugar, and fiber.
Cataract – a condition in which the lens of one or both eyes become clouded. Symptoms include cloudy or fuzzy vision.
Cholesterol – a soft, waxy, fat-like substance found in the body. There are two kinds, HDL (good) and LDL (bad).
Diabetes – a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) – a dangerous condition that occurs when ketones build up in the blood faster than the body can expel them through urine.
Diabetic neuropathy – a condition in which high blood sugar levels damage the nerves. Symptoms include tingling or numbness in the extremities (hands, feet, arms, and legs) or decreased sensitivity to pain, heat, or cold. Neuropathy can also cause bladder control or sexual problems, problems controlling blood pressure, or dizziness.
Diabetic retinopathy – a condition in which high blood sugar levels damage blood vessels that nourish the light-sensing tissue at the back of the eye, known as the retina. Symptoms include poor night vision, blurry vision, double vision or blank, dark, or floating spots.
Dietitian – a trained health care provider who provides guidance on nutrition.
Fiber – a type of carbohydrate that helps keep you regular and makes you feel full.
Gestational diabetes – a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy.
Glaucoma – a condition in which the pressure inside one or both eyes becomes too high. Symptoms include trouble seeing out of the corners of your eyes (also known as poor peripheral vision), eye pain, or swelling.
Glucose – blood sugar, which is used by all cells as a main source of energy needed for daily life.
Glucose meter – a device that allows you to measure your blood sugar.
HDL cholesterol – a good type of cholesterol that decreases the risk of heart disease.
Heart disease – A broad term that includes coronary artery disease (the hardening and thickening of the blood vessels in the heart), heart failure and peripheral artery disease (the narrowing of the blood vessels in the legs)
Hyperglycemia – a condition in which blood sugar levels are too high.
Hypoglycemia – a condition in which blood sugar levels are too low.
Insulin – a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches, and other food into glucose (blood sugar).
Insulin injection pen – a device that looks like a writing pen but has a disposable needle that allows you to inject insulin into your body.
Insulin pump – a device that is worn on the body and injects insulin continuously and can be adjusted after meals and at other times as needed. Insulin pumps are usually the size of a beeper or small cell phone and can be attached to a waistband, pocket, bra, sock, or underwear.
Jet injection device – a device that uses high-pressure air instead of a needle to shoot insulin under the skin.
Ketones – toxic byproducts your body produces when you don’t have enough insulin and your body burns fat instead of glucose (sugar).
LDL cholesterol – a bad type of cholesterol that increases the risk of heart disease.
Pre-diabetes – a condition in which a person’s blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.
Refined grain – a type of starch that is less nutritious than a whole grain because it is more processed and has less fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Some examples of refined grains include white rice, white pasta, and breads that contain enriched-wheat flour.
Resistance training – a type of exercise that strengthens your muscles. Some examples include exercises with free weights, weight machines, or resistance bands. Also known as strength training.
Retina – the light-sensing part of the eye. It is nourished by a network of tiny blood vessels that can be damaged by high blood sugar levels.
Starch – a type of carbohydrate that includes peas, corn, potatoes, beans, as well as grains such as rice and wheat.
Stroke – a serious medical condition that occurs when blood vessels in the brain are blocked or break open.
Sugar – a type of carbohydrate that can be found naturally in milk or fruit and is added to sweets and syrups. You should limit the amount of foods with added sugar because they are often low in vitamins and minerals and high in calories and fat.
Triglycerides – a type of fat found in the blood.
Type 1 diabetes – a condition in which the body makes little or no insulin. This condition was formerly known as juvenile diabetes because it first occurs in childhood.
Type 2 diabetes – a condition in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin.
Whole grain – a type of starch that is especially nutritious because it includes the entire grain, including the fiber, vitamin, and mineral-rich outer shell. Some examples of whole grains are whole-wheat flour, brown rice, rye flour, barley, or oats.